This background report paper is to present the whole picture of fecal sludge management (FSM) in Vietnam, highlighting existing challenges and suggest recommendations to mediate and promote sustainable FSM in Vietnam.
It is found that local governments play the key role in initiating and promoting FSM. Efficient and proper FSM relies on the support and collaboration between relevant stakeholders and deep understanding about the local contexts. The report indicates that practicing FSM should be an incremental process and local authorities need to set a clear financial framework to ensure sustainable FSM services. It is recommended that the participation of private service providers as well as safety protection for workers in every FSM activity needs to be taken into account. Raising public awareness on FSM issues is very important, and likely contributes to increasing the willingness to pay for frequent FS desludging services and O&M fees for the local FS treatment plants.